Auditorio: Londres, abril de 1886

¡Hola, buen fin de semana!

Aquí está el artículo español de El Circo de la Noche con mis apuntes:

Here is the Spanish article from El Circo de la Noche with my notes:

El Circo de la Noche, 105-107, annotated


  1.  adverbios // adverbs // GREEN
  2.  conjunciones // conjunctions // BLUE
  3.  palabras de transición // transition words // PURPLE
  4.  frases preposicionales // prepositional phrases // YELLOW
Y algo comentario su cada uno: And some commentary for each:
  1. Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Since they don’t modify nouns, they are invariable, meaning they do not change gender. Take a look at where the adverbs are placed in their sentences throughout the excerpt: they usually come after verbs but before adjectives or adverbs. There are adverbs of time [ya, más tarde, apenas, de nuevo, pronto, aún, cuando], of quantity/degree [más, bastante], and of manner [estratégicamente, perfectamente, pretty much any ending in -mente, así]. Adverbial expressions [por lo demas, por aquí] are also common in Spanish, but don’t be fooled by the preposition – look at the function if you are unsure. Adverbs modify; prepositions add extra detail.
  2. Once the conjunctions are identified, it becomes easier to follow the sequence of events. Conjunctions are connectors. Their function is to connect ideas in several ways: Y connects complementary statements. Que provides supplementary information about something previously specified. Pero indicates a contradictory statement or opposition in the author’s thoughts. Mientras introduces a simultaneous action or state. Being able to follow these slight shifts within each paragraph significantly improves overall comprehension.
  3. Transition words are conjunctions as well, but at the beginning of a sentence their function is to improve overall cohesion of a text. They still connect ideas, but they are mostly providing a smoother transition from one thought to the next. The longer a text, the more transition words you can find. A pesar de que in spite of, despite, even though. Aun asíeven so, even still, still then. Sin embargo = however, nevertheless.
  4. Each prepositional phrase is highlighted in full, to illustrate their importance in really any text. Prepositions expand sentences and allow for extra details; otherwise, this would be quite a short story. I also highlighted the simple prepositions [a, de…] where they may be part of an idiom or other common phrase or may be followed by a verb. The individual functions of Spanish prepositions are straightforward, but notice where it is followed by a definite article or not before the noun as well as in which instances por is used. I have found it extremely beneficial to note existing examples of prepositions whenever encountering them, not just memorizing their translations.


Espero que todo esto tenga sentido, pero siéntanse libre de enviarme un email se tengan algunas preguntas. ¡Siguen así y sus habilidades mejorarán rápidamente! I hope all this makes sense, but feel free to send me an email if you have any questions. Keep it up and your skills will quickly improve!


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