Navigate Cleveland

Ciao e bentornati! This week I’m bringing the focus back to Cleveland, Ohio..
 
In a city this large, multiculturalism is everywhere. Even though you’ll mostly hear English when exploring Cleveland, there are large communities representative of other world cultures. These groups truly enrich the city of Cleveland and aid in our language learning right here in our home country. Speaking with a native in your target language is one of the best study strategies when international travel isn’t an option. 
 
One of the reasons we learn languages is to connect and communicate with people of other cultures. The vocabulary lists below have been carefully compiled so you can engage those individuals who speak your target language. This may mean simply practicing your conversational skills or helping someone out when their English may be lacking.
 
Plus, check out this Forbes article and Cleveland’s greatest bragging rights:
 
A few notes to help you decipher your vocab list:
For each phrase/term, I have listed the English first, followed by the target language in bold.
When a single slash [/] separates two words, these are two separate vocabulary terms. [See #12]
When a double slash [//] separates two words or phrases, I am distinguishing formal versus informal. The formal phrase or question will always come first, then the informal. [See #1-4]
A comma will separate synonyms or additional vocabulary for the same word. [See #12]
I’ve included both PDFs and images. In boca al lupo! 
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CLE post italiano.pngCLE post françaisCLE post español.png

Keep in mind that names of major landmarks usually don’t get changed too much, and they are usually masculine. So most of the time you can add the definite masculine article [see my post, The Articles, for a review of definite and indefinite articles]. But knowing the generic vocabulary term for these specific sites is a great backup.

(Spanish) El Progressive Field, el Quicken Loans Arena.. But longer names, such as the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame, are more likely to be translated: el Museo de la Fama del Rock and Roll. [note: and remains in English]

 

Questions? Comments? Email me!

Am I missing anything? Let me know!

Ciao ciao! À la prochaine! ¡Buena semana!

The Articles

¡Chau! ¡Espero que ustedes estén muy bien! I have compiled a review of definite and indefinite articles in each language. But first, here’s a brief summary of this part of speech as it pertains to English:
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In English, the articles are: the, a(n), & some. 
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The is the only definite article in English, used for specificity. The book. The place. The people.  Use a definite article when referring to a specific or known object. [A noun follows the definite article.]
A(n) & some are indefinite articles, not specific. A book. A place. Some people. Some water.  In this case, the speaker is not referring to a specific noun. [A noun also follows the indefinite object.]
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Continue reading for reviews on articles in your target language! 
[Keep in mind that, just like in English, definite articles translate to the, while indefinite articles translate to a(n) or some. All articles are followed by a noun.]
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Italiano
Gli articoli determinativi sono: 
Screen Shot 2017-03-02 at 8.33.10 AM.png
        il gatto, i gatti
        l’esame, gli esami
        lo zaino, gli zaini
        la donna, le donne
        l’attrice, le attrici
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Gli articoli indeterminativi (singolari) sono:
Screen Shot 2017-03-02 at 8.34.48 AM.png
        un gatto
        un esame
        uno zaino
        una penna
        un’attrice
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Gli articoli indeterminativi plurali sono un po’ più difficili: [DE + articolo]
IT partitivi.png
Questo è il partitivo, perché si parla di una parte della totalità. Oppure, some.
    del pane some bread
    dell’acqua some water
    dello zucchero some sugar
    dei bambini some children
    degli amici some friends
    della torta some cake
    delle pere some pears
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**This does not include all of the information on the partitive – it should really have it’s own lesson. Stay tuned for more info! 
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Français
Les articles définis sont:
FR articles définis.png
    le livre, les livres
    l’examen, les examens
    la fée, les fées
    l’artiste, les artistes
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Les articles indéfinis sont: 
FR articles indéfinis.png
    un livre, des livres
    une artiste, des artistes
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*Des >> de/d’  quand le verbe est a la forme négative (1); après des expressions de quantité (2); et directement avant un adjectif pluriel (3)
1. Il n’y a pas de stade.
2. Il y a assez de parking.
3. Il y a de beaux arbres.
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Español
Los artículos definidos son:
ES artículos definidos.png
        el perro, los perros
        la mano, las manos
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Los artículos indefinidos son:
ES artículos indefinidos.png
        un perro, unos perros
        una mano, unas manos
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Uses for the definite and indefinite articles very slightly for each language – visit the Contact page to schedule a session in the Cleveland, OH area to dive deeper into this lesson!
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As always, email me with any questions or comments! 
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Is there a grammar topic you’d like to see reviewed on Hastings’ Road to Fluency? Let me know!

Laissez les bons temps rouler!

Salut, tout le monde! Ça va? Bon Mardi gras! Hopefully you’ve all been enjoying the Carnaval season! I’ve put together a short translation with some basic Mardi Gras facts. Read the source language (English) before your target language, or for an extra challenge, read your target language first. I’ve also included a handful of vocabulary in each language below. Now let the good times roll!
Estimated study time: 15-30 minutes
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// Mardi Gras is associated with Christianity, especially Catholicism, and the beginning of Lent. It is a season of indulging starting as early as the Epiphany (January 6), followed by forty days of Lenten fasting and rituals. The day after the culmination of Mardi Gras is Ash Wednesday: Catholics attend mass and receive ashes on their foreheads in the sign of the cross.  Grand celebrations occur yearly in Venice, Nice, Rio de Janeiro, Binche, Prague, and throughout Germany, the Netherlands, the Czech Republic, and Colombia. And of course, New Orleans and other major U.S. cities. //
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Martedì Grasso è associato con il Cristianesimo, specificamente con il Cattolicesimo, e l’inizio della Quaresima. È una stagione di concedersi iniziando tanto presto come l’Epifania (6 gennaio), seguita da quaranta giorni di digiuno quaresimale e di rituali. Il giorno dopo la culminazione di Martedì Grasso è Mercoledì dei Ceneri: i cattolici frequentano la messa e ricevono i ceneri sul fronte in segno della croce. Grandi festeggiamenti succedono annualmente a Veneto, Nizza, Rio de Janeiro, Praga e dovunque la Germania, la Olanda, la Repubblica Ceca e la Colombia. E certo, New Orleans ed altre città principali negli Stati Uniti.
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Le Mardi gras est associé avec le Christianisme, spécifiquement avec le Catholicisme, et le commencement du Carême. C’est une saison de se faire plaisir en commençant aussi tôt que l’Epiphanie (6 janvier), suite de quarante jours des jeûnes et rituels. Le jour après la terminaison de Mardi gras est Mercredi des Cendres: les catholiques assistent à la messe et reçoivent les cendres sur le front en forme d’une croix. Des grandes fêtes se présent annuellement à Venise, Nice, Rio de Janeiro, Prague et à travers l’Allemagne, la Hollande, la République tchèque et la Colombie. Et bien sûr, la Nouvelle-Orléans et les autres ville principales aux États-Unis.
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El Mardi Gras es asociado con el cristianismo, especificamente con el catolicismo, y el inicio de Cuaresma. Es una estación de darse un gusto que comienza tan pronto como la Epifanía (6 enero), seguida por cuarenta días de ayuno cuaresmal y rituales. El día después de la culminación de Mardi Gras es Miércoles de Ceniza: los católicos asisten la misa y reciben los cenizas en la frente en el signo de la cruz. Grandes celebraciones ocurren en Venecia, Niza, Rio de Janeiro, Praga y a través de Alemania, Holanda, la República Checa y Colombia. Y por supuesto, Nueva Orleáns y otras ciudades en los Estados Unidos.
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Vocab:
Martedì Grasso vocab.png
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Mardi Gras, vocab.png
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El Mardi Gras, vocab.png
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Make sure you’re getting daily language practice! Be diligent for 21 days and you’ve transformed it into a habit! Then aim for 90 days, after which it will be a lifestyle.
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Comments? Questions? As always, feel free to send me a message or email!
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Storytellers Revealed

Ciao ciao! Buon weekend! Hopefully, you’ve had a chance to read through your excerpts a few times — now here’s mine! Even though these are short passages from larger works, you should still be able to glean some key information. Il Viaggio Chiamato Vita is a memoir, filled with short anecdotes of the author’s life; Une Fille d’Ève is an older work of fiction, but the majority of this specific excerpt is descriptive rather than full of dialogue; El Circo de la Noche is a more recent fiction, and this passage is from what would be considered the preface and speaks directly to the reader.
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Take a look:
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Questions? Comment below or send an email! I’d be happy to help you decipher these texts!
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If you’d like to see a more detailed dissection of these excerpts, let me know! Whether you would like to see specific parts of speech identified or if you’re interested to see just how intricate these dissections can get — send me a message! 
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DISCLAIMER: A small portion of the excerpt from Il Viaggio Chiamato Vita was accidentally omitted, but I have included it in my dissected notes for everyone! Apologies!

Storytellers’ Hour

Leggiamo! // Lisons! // ¡Leamos!
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Hello, again! This week I’ve chosen excerpts from each of my foreign language novels for you to dissect and study. You can either print out the passages and write your notes on top or make your notes on your computer. Use the strategies I talked about previously in my Dissect a Text post: identify new vocab and verb tenses. If you’re feeling more ambitious, read through and identify more parts of speech, such as prepositions, adverbs, and articles.
Spend an hour, spend a half hour, even fifteen minutes if that’s all you have — but daily practice is the key to fluency.
Stay tuned for my own dissection of these passages later in the week!
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Click on the passage in your target language:
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Subscribe below to receive weekly posts!
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Are you currently reading a book in a foreign language? I want to hear about it! Comment below or send me an email (see contact page above)!

V/Day Vocab

Salut! Ça va? How is everyone? I’ve put together some Valentine’s Day vocab so you can squeeze in your language practice for the day!

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Remember, learning a language is like climbing a mountain: the act itself may be the most challenging thing you’re facing, but it’s your determination that will push you to reach the peak. Like anything in life, the more fun you have with it, the easier it will become. Take a break from the stuffy, old textbooks and incorporate your daily vocab into your daily routine, and take advantage of holidays and celebrations like today to spice things up. Bonus: converse with your multilingual friends today for extra speaking practice!

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Select the link below for your target language:

Buon San Valentino [italiano]

Bonne Saint Valentin [français]

Feliz San Valentín [español]

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For more mini-lessons like this plus weekly updates, subscribe below!

Want more V/Day Vocab? Email me!

Polyglots Galore

Hi, everyone! I recently discovered a Ted Talk with Benny Lewis about language learning and multilingualism I couldn’t resist sharing. Lewis, a polyglot — one who knows/uses many languages, tells his personal story of learning foreign languages as an adult, but most importantly, he discredits five common excuses for not studying a second language! Whether or not you’re “good” at language learning, whether or not you have the means to travel to another country.. It doesn’t matter! ANYONE can learn a new language. It doesn’t require a special gene: it requires diligence and self-motivation. It’s a decision, like Lewis says. A commitment. The difference between successful and unsuccessful language learning lies in one’s passion to discover another culture. Shift your focus from memorizing endless vocabulary lists or passing a class to having the ability to communicate with real people. Don’t just study textbooks and fill out worksheets, LIVE your language!
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Feel free to share your own experiences learning a foreign language in the comments below! Subscribe for weekly updates and more mini-lessons!
Need more motivation? Send me an email!
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Photo cred: unravellingmag.com

Dissect a Text

Hello & happy Friday!
     I have included my copies of the Madrid article I posted Tuesday, with my own notes and study strategies. If I am doing more than skimming an article, I prefer to print out a copy to write all of my notes on top of the original text. Here’s what I do to dissect a news article:
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  1. On the first read-through, highlight or underline any words that are unfamiliar to you. Even if you’ve seen the word before but can’t remember the precise definition, mark it anyway. Worst case scenario: You’ve just solidified that vocab word into your memory.
  2. Skim the article once more while researching your unknown words — that way you have a better understanding of the context, since different definitions may have their own word altogether. If it’s not too time-consuming, I like to also include the other vocabulary for contexts that don’t specifically apply to the article. Mainly to have the full weight of a given word in the back of my mind, but that’s a personal choice. Watch out for idioms and other tricky phrases that can’t be translated word-for-word!
  3. The next time through, identify all the verbs and tenses you know. Keep an eye out for compound tenses, since the past/present participles resemble and are often used as adjectives. It may help to have a cheat sheet of verb tense endings at first.
  4. Read through the article once more, taking in the new vocab and using the identified verb tenses to give the article better context.
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     If you think it would benefit you to identify more in the article [prepositions, gender/number of nouns, and transition words are helpful too!], go for it! The more time you spend dissecting an article, the more time you are spending working with your target language. This exercise is incredibly flexible, so tweak it to fit your own learning style. Studying a foreign language is a daily struggle, but it doesn’t have to be tedious!
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     As always, comment below or send an email with any questions! See my previous post, My tips & tricks, for resources for news articles in your target language! ¡Hasta martes!

Year of the Rooster

Hello again! Saturday, January 28 rang in the Chinese New Year! We’ve said goodbye to the Monkey and welcomed in the Rooster! The rooster is believed to represent fortune, luck, and fidelity. Preparations for the new year include cleaning one’s home to sweep away any lingering bad luck; then, brooms are put away to avoid sweeping away good luck that comes with the new year. Specific traditions vary by region, with celebrations lasting for up to 15 days! It’s not just China that sees New Year’s celebrations: Chinese communities can be found all around the world! Fireworks and a reunion dinner brings families together to initiate the new year, while the Lantern Festival concludes the festivities. For the Chinese, this is a time to honor deities and ancestors, as well as visit family. Older family members give red envelopes containing cash to younger, unmarried family members. If it seems like the color red is everywhere during the Chinese New Year, it is! Red is the color of good luck, which is amplified by the Rooster’s good fortune. The rooster calls one to action in the morning — therefore, is it calling us to work harder this year?
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Here’s an article further detailing Chinese New Year festivities:
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Keep reading below for Italian, French, and Spanish translations! && Check out two short videos on Chinese New Year festivities!
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Sabato il 28 gennaio si è salutato il Capodanno Cinese! Abbiamo detto addio al Mono e dato il benvenuto al Gallo! ll gallo è creduto a rappresentare la fortuna e la fedeltà. Le preparazioni per l’anno nuovo include pulire la casa per spazzare la sfortuna che permane. Poi, le scope sono messe via per evitare spazzare la fortuna dell’anno nuovo. Le tradizioni specifici variano da regioni, ma il festeggiamento può durare fino a 15 giorni! Non è soltanto la Cina che vede i festeggiamenti del Capodanno — le comunità cinesi possono trovarsi ovunque il mondo! I fuochi d’artificio e un cenone uniscono le famiglie per iniziare l’anno nuovo, e la Festa di Lanterne conclude tutto. Per i cinesi, è un tempo per onorare le divinità e gli antenati, e per andare a trovare le famiglie. I familiari più vecchi danno le buste rossa che contiene dei soldi ai familiari giovani. Se pare che il colore rosso sia ovunque durante il Capodanno Cinese, è vero! È il colore di fortuna, e questo è enfatizzato dalla fortuna del Gallo. Il gallo si chiama all’azione nella mattina — dunque ci chiama a lavorare più duro quest’anno?

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Ecco un corto video (quasi 2 minuti) che rivela alcuni tradizioni per il Capodanno Cinese:
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Samedi le 28 janvier on a fêté le Nouvel An Chinois! Nous avons dit adieu au Singe et fait bon accueil au Coq! Le Coq représente la fortune, la chance et la fidélité. Les préparations pour la nouvelle année incluent nettoyer la maison pour balayer la malchance qui persiste. Puis les balais sont rangés pour éviter balayer la fortune du Nouvel An. Les traditions spécifiques varient par région, mais la célébration peut durer jusqu’à 15 jours! Ce n’est pas seulement la Chine qui voit la célébration del Nouvel An — les communautés chinois se peuvent trouver partout le monde! Les feu d’artifice et un grand repas s’unissent les familles pour initier la nouvelle année, et le Festival de Lanterne concluent les célébrations. Pour les chinois, c’est un temps pour honorer les divinités et les ancêtres, ainsi que rendre visite à la famille. Les membres plus anciens de la famille donnent les enveloppes rouges avec l’argent aux membres plus jeunes et célibataires. S’il semble que le couleur de rouge soit partout pendant le Nouvel An Chinois, c’est vrai! C’est le couleur de la fortune, qui est souligné par la fortune du Coq. Le coq s’appelle à l’action du matin — donc est-ce qu’il nous appelle à travailler plus dur cette année?

Voici un court vidéo (1 minute) des célébrations du Nouvel An Chinois:

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¡Sábado el 28 enero se festejó la llegada del Año Nuevo Chino! ¡Nos despedimos al Mono y dimos la bienvenida al Gallo! El gallo representa la suerte y la fidelidad. Las preparaciones por el año nuevo incluyen limpiar la casa por barrer la mala suerte que se detiene. Pues las escobas son guardadas por evitar barrer la suerte del Año Nuevo. Las tradiciones específicas varian por región, pero la celebración puede durar hasta que 15 días! No es solo la China que ve las festividades del Año Nuevo — ¡las comunidades pueden encontrarse en todas partes del mundo! Los fuegos artificiales y una cena grande se unen las familias por iniciar el nuevo año, y la Fiesta de Linterna concluye las festividades. Para los chinos, es un tiempo por honrar las deidades y los antepasados, además de visitar la familia. Los miembros más viejos de la familia dan los sobres rojos con dinero en efectivo a los miembros más jóvenes y solteros. Se parece que el color rojo esté en todas partes durante el Año Nuevo Chino, ¡es vero! Es el color de la suerte, que es amplificado por la suerte del Gallo. El gallo se llama a la acción en la mañana — por eso, ¿nos llama a trabajar más duro este año?
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Aquí está un artículo de las celebraciones chinas en Madrid:
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Comment/email any questions regarding the translations or the linked videos/article. Subscribe to receive weekly updates and mini-lessons like this one!

A New Presidential Era

Ciao, tutti! Here are a few articles on the inauguration this past Friday. I selected the most objective (& relevant) articles for you to study. It’s not about the profound opinions that have accompanied this presidential election: it’s about learning new vocabulary and being able to expand your conversational skills. Reading and dissecting articles in your target language is an optimal way to familiarize yourself with common speech patterns and sentence structures. For those who are more advanced, try expressing your own opinions and ask questions to find out others’ as well!
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To see what else these other countries have to say about the election, check out the International sections in each of the newspapers linked below. Be able to converse with your friends in your target language about this WORLDWIDE current event!
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Donald Trump presidente: ecco cosa cambia [Corriere della Sera, 4 novembre 2016]
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Donald Trump est devenu le 45e président des États-Unis [Le Monde, 21 janvier 2017]
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El poder, al pueblo [El Correo, 21 enero 2017]
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       -Research new vocab and identify verb tenses to get the most out of these articles!-
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Comment below or send an email for further questions about these articles (or any others you find online)! Buona giornata! Bonne chance! ¡Nos vemos!